Quote from PotatoSalad
"Luck is an event which occurs beyond one's control"
If it's theoretically possible for an event to be within your control, then "luck" is not the correct word to be used. Compare the word "luck" to "never." You cannot say something will never happen even if it only has a 0.000...00001% chance of happening. The correct saying would be that it almost never happens. Therefore since there is a 0.000...00001% chance of happening you would have to replace "never" with "almost never" or "rarely."
Similarly with the word luck, which you said includes the definition: "beyond one's control." Let's take your example of the jelly beans in a jar. You look at the jar, take a wild guess and get it right. You may think it's lucky, but the number you chose was not entirely beyond your control. You made an educated guess, and experts (theoretically) can be able to get the exact number every time. Although you may not be able to correctly guess the amount of jelly beans in a jar the second or third time, you obtain a range of how much you are usually off by (example: plus or minus 50 jelly beans) and with enough practice you can lessen that gap.
Surviving a fight with however much hp is skill. You say no human in the world can figure out all the variables on the fly. Most likely, no one in the world can do it now, but it's not impossible. If you can work on your skills to that point, then it's just a matter of skill instead of luck.
All of the examples you gave have things out of your control; namely, your opponent's and teammate's actions. That's a bit nitpicky, though (not luck, but lack of skill by your opponents, but you were lucky that they made a mistake, etc.).
I think the issue is basically one of definitions. If you just limit "lucky" to things out of your control, then a lot of things that most people would consider lucky (rolling a six on a real-life fair die 100 times in a row, guessing the correct amount of grains of rice on a table after a second of viewing) would not be lucky. I think that the common usage is significantly less strict than that.
It's true that a hypothetical perfect player would depend very little on luck. But that perfect player can't possibly exist; they'd either have to have perfect foresight or never, ever take risks. In a real life scenario, players are forced to make educated guesses based on limited knowledge (due to UI restrictions, in-game restrictions like fog-of-war, and the fact that they can't perfectly predict their opponents' and allies' actions); those decisions are basically best-case heuristics at best, which involves some chance of failure. And in that chance of failure is an element of luck.
That's not to say that skill plays no factor in these things, of course. Skill acts as a risk-minimizer by making educated guesses more accurate, meaning that you're less likely to do something that requires more luck.