It might hurt, but if jayce can't get the kill he's going to have hard time committing given Aatrox's high sustain, on top of the AS steroid and damage from his ult. Food for thought.
Well, we all know how Jayce works. You can't stand near minions and last hit properly 'cause you'll get hit in the head with mercury cannon and/or powerslam; you can't go all-in or him 'cause you'll get a smack, you can't trade properly especially when you're focused on AA 'cause Jayce unloads his whole combo on ya in a second then nuke-smacks you away before you can do 3 autos. Also, the pretty high sustain of Aatrox comes from autoing stuff, and if you auto minions you get shot by mercury cannon and basically you can at best go even in the damage/sustain trade.
Technically Jayce is on the higher ground, but well, it would all boil down to player skill anyway. But personally, as Jayce, I've never had any significant problems with anyone who's not able to do proper long-range damage and/or are tanky, and/or have good sustain - so the likes of Kennen, maybe Vlad, Ryze can be problematic (even though you can smack him away in the ulti), and most melees are screwed and has to cross the gap between the characters power level in-lane by player skill. Although I didn't fight any Aatroxes yet, so maybe I'll be corrected by experience :) (well I've met one, but he got DCed and came 2-levles lower than me and I used this fully to make his life living hell so that doesn't count).